Drawing with the turtle.
Programme specially designed for students who have not yet acquired reading and speaking skills.


Norma Ethel Beccerica de Cabana
Bs As 4070 ( 7600 ) Mar del Plata
Rca Argentina
tel/fax: 54-023-93-3120


I’m a primary school teacher who has specialized in educational computation and LOGO. I have been working with Logo since 1980, developing different projects at institutions of primary and special education of varied characteristics. When approaching the presentation of LOGO to students who did not have the rudiments reading and speaking skills,

I had to develop, as an alternative, programmes that would allow them to work without the need to write,. The first approaches were made with versions of Logo from Texas, Talent, in home computers and later on in PC WinLogo, and Logowriter.

I am acquainted with a group of teachers who have developed projects of various types: optional workshops, curriculum workshops and supporting workshop for disabled students. I have therefore developed new programms of different levels of complexity directed to different cognitive aspects.

The purpose of the programme I`m sending is to enable those students who have not developed reading or writing skills to use a command that will allow them to move within scream space as a way of working on the general aspects of space and direction, with the aim of preparing students for writing and providing them with the necessary knowledge preceding the operating system.

The programme is called Draw and it originated in the programme M of less complexity.

DRAW is a procedure with subprocedures, variables, lists and advanced recourse.

DRAW makes use of two subprocedures: PRE and DRIVE.

PRE prepares the working space to start the activity.

DRIVE is a recursive procedure which permits, when executed, the displacement of the turtle over the screen, under our control. After that, LOGO will register it on a list: LDO our commands. It makes use of global variables, conditionals and the subprocedure execute, with the local variable: LETTER (letra) . If we clear the screen and give the command SEE (ver) , the drawing will reappear since the turtle will once more obey the given commands. This will permit a clear analysis of what the student has done to obtain certain graphics. In case of using the programme again, the content in the list of commands (:LDO) will change, and the previous one will disappear.

REGISTER receives a command as an argument, which should be presented in a list. First it executes this command by means of ACTIVE and then it integrates it to the end of the list of commands in order to keep it.

The programme contains the following procedures:

The subprocedure LDO stores the commands and introduces them into an empty list. It start the list and prepares the turtle to start.

Square, circle and triangle procedures are also includes. These will enable students to obtain those shapes.

This work has been translated into the official language of the congress so that it can be read and interpreted. However, the programme DRAW which I want to execute from Logowriter is executed in Spanish. For that reason I am also sending the Spanish version of Logowriter so that it can be executed by simply following the specified steps mentioned in the notes in Spanish which I enclosed below:

NOTES: names the programs

DRAW (dibujar)
SEE (ver)
DRIVE (manejar)
LETTER (letra)
EXECUTE (ejecutar)
REGISTER (registrar)

The commands indicated on the following screens are one needed to make the programme work. In the sent Logowriter copy the mentioned page receives the name of DIBU and it shows us how the programme works.

In order to start working we must place curselves, at page DIBUJAR. (Enter)

The commands are in this way activated. Them by means of the different letters we will start drawing.

If at any moment we wish to know the quantity of movements made by the student to get the design we may press the letter V . In other words, we have the opportunity to see how the student has solved the problem, the way he thought.

In order to finish we press the letter X.

We may wish to clear the screen or not and them we will write VER.

The programme will again show us the drawing made by the last student who used it, thus giving us the possibility of writing the child’s name on the left-hand side corner, where the cursor is situated.

If we press ENTER we will get a printed copy of the work.

We might also keep it, giving a name to the new page.